Circa Group Pty Ltd
Bio21 Molecular Science
& Biotechnology Institute
30 Flemington Road, Parkville
VIC 3052 Australia
Twitter @circagroup

Tony Duncan
Chief Executive Officer

Fabien Deswarte
Business Development Manager

c/o Bio 21, Flemington Road

+61 419 303 117

Circa Group is converting waste biomass into advanced biochemical materials.




Cyrene is Circa’s trade name for (-)-dihydrolevoglucosenone (1S,5R)-6,8-Dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-4-one; CAS Reg. No. 53716-82-8

General properties overview:

Stability in the Presence of Bases

Cyrene is a cyclic ketone containing two protons alpha to the carbonyl group and, like cyclohexanone, it will form initially dimers and then oligomers and insoluble polymers when treated with strong bases such as sodium hydroxide, potassium carbonate and many strongly basic organic amines. Cyrene is however unchanged by heating in chloroform in the presence of triethylamine at 60oC for 18 hours.

Stability in the Presence of Acids

Cyrene is relatively stable in the presence of weak acids and, for example, can be heated with trifluoracetic acid at 60oC for 18h without apparent change. Brief treatment with aqueous 2M HCl however rapidly converts Cyrene to a mixture of products that have not yet been characterised.

Stability to Oxidizing Agents

Cyrene reacts violently with 30% aqueous hydrogen peroxide at room temperature. It will react selectively with hydrogen peroxide and peracids, such as peracetic and m-chloroperbenzoic acid under carefully controlled conditions to afford a mixture of (5S)-dihydro-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2(3H)-furanone and its formyl ester. Reactivity with other strong oxidants has not been tested and caution should be exercised whenever doing so in view of the violence of the reaction with 30% hydrogen peroxide.

Other Reactions of Cyrene™

Because dihydrolevoglucosenone has only been available in useful quantities quite recently, its chemistry remains relatively unexplored. Some useful recent investigations of the reactivity and solvent properties of Cyrene have been published by Clark et al and by Greatrex and co-workers.

Romero et al, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., (2013), 52, 2257

Allais, F. et al, Green Chem., (2015), 17, 404

Clark, J. H. et al, Chem Commun., (2014), 50, 9650

Greatrex, B. W. et al, Eur. J. Org. Chem., (2015), 6999

New frontiers in sustainable membrane preparation: Cyrene™ as green bioderived solvent

T. Marino, F. Galian, A Molino, A Figoli

Official advice we’ve received our REACH Annex VIII accreditation

Toxicity screening of potential bio-based Polar Aprotic Solvents



Soybean hulls, an alternative source of bioactive compounds: Combining pyrolysis with bioguided fractionation

Cyrene as a bio-based alternative for dipolar aprotic solvents

James Sherwood, Mario De Bruyn, Andri Constantinou, Laurianne Moity, C. Rob McElroy, Thomas J. Farmer, Tony Duncan, Warwick Raverty, Andrew J. Hunt and James H. Clark, 2014

Dihydrolevoglucosenone (Cyrene) is a bio-based molecule, derived in two simple steps from cellulose, which demonstrates significant promise as a dipolar aprotic solvent.


Kirst L. Wilson, Alan R. Kennedy, Jane Murray, Ben Greatrex, Craig Jamieson and Allan J. B. Watson

Green and Sustainable Solvents in Chemical Processes

Coby J. Clarke, Wei-Chien Tu, Oliver Levers, Andreas Bröhl, and Jason P. Hallett

Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom

Cyrene as a bio-based solvent for HATU mediated amide coupling

Kirsty L Wilson, Jane Murray, Craig Jamieson and Allan J. B. Watson

Synthesis of Bioacrylic Polymers from Dihydro-5-hydroxyl furan-2-one (2H-HBO) by Free and Controlled Radical Polymerization

Parijat Ray, Timothy Hughes, Craig Smith, George P. Simon and Kei Saito,

Department of Materials Science and Engineering and New Horizons Research Centre and ‡ School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia

Synthesis of Triazole Derivatives of Levoglucosenone As Promising Anticancer Agents: Effective Exploration of the Chemical Space through retro-aza-Michael//aza-Michael Isomerizations

Tsai YH, Borini Etichetti CM, Di Benedetto C, Girardini JE, Martins FT, Spanevello RA, Suárez AG, Sarotti AM

Method for synthesizing a precursor
of a single Dairy-Lactone Isomer

Florent Allais, Aurélien Peru, Ben Greatrex, Douglas Warwick, Anthony Duncan

Bio‐based Chiral Amines via Aza‐Michael Additions to (‐)‐Levoglucosenone Under Aqueous Conditions

John Sperry, Ben Greatrex, Shinji Kudo, Shi-Wei Kim, Ed Ledingham

Institut des Science et Industries du Vivant et de L'environnement-Agroparis Tech, University of New England, Circa Group PTY LTD

Oxygenated commodity chemicals from chemo‐catalytic conversion of biomass derived heterocycles

Siddarth H. Krishna, Kefeng Huang, Kevin J. Barnett, Jiayue He, Christos T. Maravelias, James A. Dumesic, George W. Huber, Mario De bruyn, Bert M. Weckhuysen

The Green Transformation of Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis


Scope and limitations of a DMF bio-alternative within Sonogashira cross-coupling and Cacchi-type annulation

Intelligent Approach to Solvent Substitution: The Identification of a New Class of Levoglucosenone Derivatives

Identification of high performance solvents for the sustainable processing of graphene

Synthesis of ureas in the bio-alternative solvent Cyrene

Cyrene as a Bio-Based Solvent for the Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling

Greener solvents for solid-phase synthesis

Concise and efficient synthesis of E-stereoisomers of exo-cyclic carbohydrate enones. Aldol condensation of dihydrolevoglucosenone with five-membered aromatic aldehydes

Cross-aldol reactions of levoglucosenone and its derivatives with cyclohex-1-en-1-ol ethers

Organic solvent- and catalyst-free Baeyer–Villiger oxidation of levoglucosenone and dihydrolevoglucosenone (Cyrene®): a sustainable route to (S)-γ-hydroxymethyl-α,β-butenolide and (S)-γ-hydroxymethyl-γ-butyrolactone

Bio‐available Solvent Cyrene: Synthesis, Derivatization, and Applications

One-pot synthesis of carbohydrate exo-cyclic enones and hemiketals with 6,8-dioxabicyclo-[3.2.1]octane moieties. Serendipitous formation of a spironolactone when 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde is used as the reactant

Synthesis of a Chiral Auxiliary Family from Levoglucosenone and Evaluation in the Diels–Alder Reaction

Development of pharmaceutically relevant bio-based intermediates though aldol condensation and Claisen–Schmidt reactions of dihydrolevoglucosenone (Cyrene®)

Sustainable production of highly conductive multilayer graphene ink for wireless connectivity and IoT applications

Vapor pressures, densities, and PC-SAFT parameters for 11 bio-compounds

Bio-Inspired Robust Membranes Nanoengineered from Interpenetrating Polymer Networks of Polybenzimidazole/Polydopamine

New frontiers in sustainable membrane preparation: Cyrene™ as green bioderived solvent

Tailoring the Performance of Organic Solvent Nanofiltration Membranes with Biophenol Coatings

Solvent effects in palladium catalysed cross-coupling reactions

A Method of Calculating the Kamlet–Abboud–Taft Solvatochromic Parameters Using COSMO-RS

Preparation of the diastereomerically pure 2S-hydroxy derivative of dihydrolevoglucosenone (cyrene)

Development of bio-acrylic polymers from Cyrene™: transforming a green solvent to a green polymer

Synthesis of amides from acid chlorides and amines in the bio-based solvent Cyrene™

Cyrene is a green alternative to DMSO as a solvent for antibacterial drug discovery against ESKAPE pathogens